When it comes to learning the Spanish language, one of the intriguing yet often perplexing aspects is mastering the rules for words ending in “-cion,” “-sion,” and “-xion.” Before delving into these suffixes, let's start by understanding what nouns and adjectives are. Nouns, which can be thought of as names for people, animals, or things, play a crucial role in any language.

Adjectives, especially qualifiers, describe the qualities of the person or thing represented by the noun. In this article, we will focus on qualifiers, which are often the source of spelling errors. To use these suffixes correctly, it's essential to grasp some key rules.

suffix cion sion xion in spanish

The use of the letters C, S, and Z in Spanish writing can be a source of doubt and confusion, particularly for those learning the language. In academic settings, correct usage of these letters is vital. While some rules exist, there are instances where no strict guidelines can help differentiate the proper use of these letters. Comparing with words from the same family, especially those with endings like "do," "dor," "to," or "tor" for "-ción," and "so," "sor," "sivo," or "sible" for "-sión," can be a valuable reference.

Let's begin with the rule for using “-sión,” “-ción,” or “-xión”: Adjectives that end with “s” (-so, -sor, -sorio, -sivo) yield nouns ending in -zion. Adjectives ending with “t” or “d” (to, -tor, -torio, -tivo, do, dor) result in nouns ending in -tion. For adjectives ending in “x,” the corresponding nouns end in -xion.

Adjectives ending in:They form nouns that end in:
-so, -sor, -ble y -vo -sión
-to y –do -ción
-xo y -jo -xión
ctor y cto -cción

Suffix “-tion”

The “-tion” suffix, along with its variants, -ación and -ión, finds its origins in the Latin "tion" (nominative tio, accusative tionem). It combines with verbal themes to denote the action of a verb and its resulting effect. Most words ending with “-tion” have Latin roots, such as “abdicación” (abdication), “alteración” (alteration), “abolición” (abolition), “admisión” (admission), “bendición” (blessing), “dentición” (dentition), “locución” (locution), “secreción” (secretion), and more. These words are derived from Latin accusatives like “abdicationem,” “alterationem,” “abolitionem,” “admissionem,” “benedictionem,” “dentitionem,” “locutionem,” and “secretionem.” Some words are formed in the Spanish language, mostly from first conjugation verbs, and end in “-ación” or “-ción.”

Suffix “-sion”

The “-sion” ending is primarily used in words where the letter "C" would be incompatible or create confusion. To determine if “-sion” should be used, remove the “-sion” syllable from the word and add one of these endings to the remaining syllables: “so,” “sor,” “sorio,” “sivo,” or “sible.” If the word makes sense with any of these proposed syllables, it should be spelled with an "S."

Suffix “-xion”

The “-xion” ending is used for nouns derived from words ending in “jo” and “xo.” For example, “anexo” (annex) becomes “anexión” (annexation), “complejo” (complex) transforms into “complexión” (complexion), and “conexo” (connected) becomes “conexión” (connection). Other examples include “crucifijo” (crucifix) becoming “crucifixión” (crucifixion), “genuflexo” (genuflexo) becoming “genuflexión” (genuflection), and “reflejo” (reflection) becoming “reflexión” (reflection).

Understanding these rules and patterns for the “-cion,” “-sion,” and “-xion” suffixes will undoubtedly enhance your Spanish language skills and help you navigate words with confidence.